Jamaica sites

Jamaica Sites Inhaltsverzeichnis

5 Romantic Places To Experience Nature | Ever In Transit. My top five romantic places around the world where you can connect with nature. Jamaica Vacation resorts_ #jamaican #jamaika #photograpdy Jamaica Vacation Informationen auf unserer Site #jamaicavacationattire. Apr 24, - This Pin was discovered by A K. Discover (and save!) your own Pins on Pinterest. In: styggasvenskar.se UNESCO World Heritage Centre, abgerufen am Juni (englisch). ↑ Former Tentative Sites of Jamaica. In: World Heritage Site. - Spring break is just around the corner, and we're all ready to let off a little steam—but where are the steamiest places you.

Jamaica sites

In: styggasvenskar.se UNESCO World Heritage Centre, abgerufen am Juni (englisch). ↑ Former Tentative Sites of Jamaica. In: World Heritage Site. Jamaica Experience Tour: Birthday vacation - See traveler reviews, candid One day was spend seeing the sites around Montego Bay followed by an. SNORKEL JAMAICA: Sites Seen Below the Surface (English Edition) eBook: Traveler, Joe: styggasvenskar.se: Kindle-Shop.

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Hampden Estate 81 reviews. Blue Mountains reviews. See 12 Experiences. Bloody Bay 1, reviews. Jamaica Swamp Safari Village reviews. See 33 Experiences.

Green Grotto Caves reviews. Negril Cliffs 1, reviews. Museums Ras Natango Gallery and Garden reviews. Historic Falmouth Cruise Port reviews.

See 9 Experiences. Blue Lagoon reviews. See 7 Experiences. Cranbrook Flower Forest 16 reviews. Emancipation Park reviews. See 4 Experiences.

Burwood Beach 53 reviews. White River 1, reviews. See 48 Experiences. Benta River Falls 9 reviews. See 6 Experiences.

See more. Rastasafari Experience from Negril reviews. Cultural Tours. Frequently Asked Questions about Jamaica. What are the top attractions to visit in Jamaica?

The largest and oldest distillery in Jamaica has been blending rums since This series of seven cascades, hemmed in by limestone cliffs and surrounded by lush jungle, are among the most beautiful in Jamaica.

The cascades fall 36m from top to bottom, separated by cool pools perfect for Top Choice Museum in Kingston. Today the house functions as combined tourist Few of Jamaica's waterfall experiences match Mayfield Falls for crowd-free natural beauty.

Picture this: you climb into the cool river beneath giant thickets of bamboo and scramble upstream for around 40 minutes, Top Choice Area in Kingston.

An innovative art and permaculture scheme, Life Yard is regenerating an area of downtown Kingston once beset with gang problems.

The program is centered on an urban farming project, and its Rastafari organizers National Park in Blue Mountains. Top Choice Gallery in Kingston National Gallery of Jamaica The superlative collection of Jamaican art housed by the National Gallery is the finest on the island and should on no account be missed.

Top Choice Waterfall in Moore Town Nanny Falls The idyllic waterfall and swimming hole of Nanny Falls is a minute walk uphill from the end of Moore Town, passing under huge ferns, Jamaican apple trees and cathedral-like stands of giant bamboo.

Top Choice Mountain in Blue Mountains Blue Mountain Peak Highest of the highlights, Blue Mountain Peak reaches m above sea level, and no visit to the area should neglect a predawn hike to its summit for a sunrise view.

View map. Browse by Category. Private Day Trips. Nature and Wildlife. Horseback Riding. Eco Tours. Popular Cities in Jamaica. Sandy Bay. Rio Bueno.

Green Island. White House. Irish Town. Savanna La Mar. Discovery Bay. Spanish Town. Explore Jamaica. One Love Bus Bar Crawl reviews. Rastasafari Experience from Montego Bay reviews.

See all. Top Attractions in Jamaica. Martha Brae River 1, reviews. Dunn's River Falls and Park 19, reviews. See Experiences. Rastafari Indigenous Village reviews.

Seven Mile Beach 7, reviews. See 47 Experiences. Blue Hole 6, reviews.

Jamaica sites Jamaica's World Heritage Site, the Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park, is one of the richest biodiversity sites in the world and a nature-lover's paradise. #sunset #travel #escape #caribbean #islandstyle #negril #reggae #jamaican. list is here. Take a look at some of the most afforadable places in the world. SNORKEL JAMAICA: Sites Seen Below the Surface (English Edition) eBook: Traveler, Joe: styggasvenskar.se: Kindle-Shop. Jamaica Experience Tour: Birthday vacation - See traveler reviews, candid One day was spend seeing the sites around Montego Bay followed by an. Jan 24, - Welcome to Travellers Beach Resort, Negril Jamaica #​travellersbeachresort #negril #jamaica #caraibconnexion. One of the best beaches Xvideo caseros Montego Bay, Doctor's Cave Beach is an alluring strip Einfach porno hentai white sand fringed by clear waters that helped shape the fate of this popular tourist town. See 41 Experiences. In Kingston, Jamaica's edgy capital, you can tour reggae legend Bob Marley's former home and explore the city's museums and historic sites. Browse by Category. Help Learn to edit Community portal Xjamster changes Upload file. Archived from the original on 10 May Petrojam, Jamaica's national and only petroleum refinery, is co-owned by the Government of Venezuela. Things to Do. Rio Bueno. However, Bikini cunt primary spoken language is an English-based creole called Jamaican Patois or Patwa. Among No mans land latin edition island's protected Free cam to cam rooms are the Cockpit CountryHellshire Hillsand Litchfield forest reserves. Testing the Chains.

Be prepared for persistent hawkers prowling the beach. South of the beach, the Negril Cliffs rise above the coral-fringed coast and provide a popular perch for sunset views and cliff jumping.

Accommodation: Where to Stay in Negril. Rafting the Martha Brae is one of the most popular things to do in Jamaica.

At Martha Brae Rafter's Village, you can glide down a picturesque stretch of the river on bamboo rafts poled by local guides.

This relaxing trip is a great way to soak up some of the tropical scenery, and some of the guides will entertain you along the way, singing or sharing information about the flora and fauna.

Encompassing meters of gently terraced waterfalls, Dunn's River Falls is one of Jamaica's most famous natural attractions.

The falls tumble over rocks and limestone ledges into the sea. You can climb the natural tiers to the top of the falls with the aid of a guide and cool off in the refreshing pools at the base.

It's a good idea to wear water shoes and clothing that you don't mind getting wet. Also, try to plan your visit around the cruise ship crowds. This tour stops by the village of Nine Mile, birthplace of Bob Marley, and then heads over to the Dunn's River Falls, for a guided hike up to the falls and a slide or swim in the natural pools.

Hotel pickup and drop-off, entrance fees, lunch, and a guide are included. Snorkel over coral reefs, enjoy an ocean cruise, and relax and play in the water at the falls.

Hotel pickup and drop-off is included. Once a refuge for former slaves and the indigenous Taino, who fled here to escape slavery, this unspoiled preserve offers breathtaking scenery.

Within its borders, you can explore jungle-clad mountains; waterfalls; lush rainforests; coffee plantations; and exotic plants and animals, including species of endemic plants, more than species of birds, and the world's second largest butterfly.

A highlight of a visit here is the hike or mule ride up Jamaica's highest peak, 2,meter-high Blue Mountain Peak.

This two-day trip offers thrilling views, and on a clear day, you can see all the way to Cuba. Set between mountains and a double harbor, Port Antonio exudes the relaxed charm of a sleepy fishing village.

Once a center for banana export, the area is distinctly less commercial than the other resort towns. Popular things to do here include hiking jungle trails, rafting the Rio Grande , taking a tour to Reach Falls , and snorkeling and diving the coral reefs.

A favorite swimming spot is the beautiful meter-deep Blue Lagoon , fed by freshwater springs. Other highlights of the area include the 18th-century British stronghold of Fort George and beautiful Frenchman's Cove, where a fish-filled river flows into the sea.

The beaches here are a wonderful mix of white sand, shallow waters, and lush outcroppings of land. Nearby, Daniel's River plunges through a gorge of natural rock in a series of cascades and pools known as Somerset Falls.

Set between Port Antonio's two harbors and reached by ferry, Navy Island was once owned by movie swashbuckler Errol Flynn. Today, the island is a favorite for picnics and day trips.

Jamaica's spicy "jerk-style" of cooking originated in the region and some of the best can be found at Boston Beach east of Port Antonio. One of the best beaches in Montego Bay, Doctor's Cave Beach is an alluring strip of white sand fringed by clear waters that helped shape the fate of this popular tourist town.

In the early s, a famous British osteopath declared that the water had curative powers after swimming here, a claim which began to lure visitors from around the world.

Hotels sprouted up, and the area became a popular tourist destination. The cave for which the beach is named was destroyed by a hurricane in , but the beach is as popular as ever and is often crowded with cruise ship passengers.

Accommodation: Where to Stay in Montego Bay. High in the rainforest-cloaked mountains outside Ocho Rios, the Blue Hole also called Island Gully Falls or the Irie Blue Hole is a series of picturesque waterholes fed by gushing cascades.

Guides lead you around the area where you can explore the falls and jump off cliffs into the refreshing pools below. The adventure involves clambering over slippery rocks, so appropriate water shoes are recommended.

Built in , Rose Hall is a restored plantation house with beautiful ocean views. Legendary Annie Palmer the White Witch ruled here with cruelty and met a violent death.

Today, her home is adorned with period furniture, and you can choose between a day tour or a spooky candlelit evening tour topped off with tales of ghost sightings.

Expert guides pole bamboo rafts through an impressive stretch of tropical rainforest along the Rio Grande River during a two-and-a-half-hour tour.

Rafting here dates back to around , when banana farmers in the Rio Grande Valley used to transport their bananas along the river.

The Rio Grande tends to be less crowded than the Martha Brae River and offers beautiful scenery and gentle rapids. Crocodiles and more than species of birds, including herons and snowy egrets, are among the critters that make their home along the mangrove-fringed Black River - the longest in Jamaica.

You can tour the river on guided boats and enjoy a running commentary on the area's ecology and history.

A short drive away and often combined with the Black River for tours, the beautiful YS Falls are Jamaica's largest and least commercial cascades.

Some of the seven waterfalls flow into peaceful natural pools, which are lovely for a dip on a hot day. You can also play Tarzan on the rope swing and plunge into a wading pool below fed by natural springs.

Ziplining and river tubing are also available. A gentle hike through tropical rainforest takes you to the top of the falls where a lifeguard patrols.

You can stand under the streaming cascades, explore underwater caves, and swim in the fern-fringed waters surrounded by rainforest. Water shoes are recommended.

Here, you'll find two beautiful waterfalls; 21 natural pools; and a profusion of ferns, tropical flowers, and other rainforest flora.

A limited form of local government was introduced with the creation of the House of Assembly of Jamaica in ; however, it represented only a tiny number of rich plantation owners.

During the s the economy boomed, based largely on sugar and other crops such as coffee , cotton and indigo. All these crops were worked by black slaves, who lived short and often brutal lives with no rights, being the property of a small planter-class.

By the beginning of the 19th century, Jamaica's dependence on slave labour and a plantation economy had resulted in black people outnumbering white people by a ratio of almost 20 to 1.

Although the British had outlawed the importation of slaves, some were still smuggled in from Spanish colonies and directly.

They banned the use of whips in the field and flogging of women; informed planters that slaves were to be allowed religious instruction, and required a free day during each week when slaves could sell their produce, [49] prohibiting Sunday markets to enable slaves to attend church.

Members, with membership then restricted to European-Jamaicans, claimed that the slaves were content and objected to Parliament's interference in island affairs.

Slave owners feared possible revolts if conditions were lightened. The British abolished the slave trade in , but not the institution itself.

The rebellion resulted in hundreds of deaths, the destruction of many plantations, and resulted in ferocious reprisals by the plantocracy class.

Over the next 20 years, several epidemics of cholera , scarlet fever , and smallpox hit the island, killing almost 60, people about 10 per day.

Their races were recorded as 13, white, , coloured mixed black and white , and , black. Dissatisfaction with this, and continued racial discrimination and marginalisation of the black majority, led to the outbreak of the Morant Bay rebellion in led by Paul Bogle , which was put down by Governor John Eyre with such brutality that he was recalled from his position.

In Jamaica was struck by an earthquake — this, and the subsequent fire, caused immense destruction in Kingston and the deaths of —1, people. Unemployment and poverty remained a problem for many Jamaicans.

Various movements seeking political change arose as a result, most notably the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League founded by Marcus Garvey in As well as seeking greater political rights and an improvement for the condition of workers, Garvey was also a prominent Pan-Africanist and proponent of the Back-to-Africa movement.

Despite occasional persecution, Rastafari grew to become an established faith on the island, later spreading abroad.

The Great Depression of the s hit Jamaica hard. As part of the British West Indian labour unrest of —39 , Jamaica saw numerous strikes, culminating in a strike in that turned into a full-blown riot.

Jamaica slowly gained increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. In it became a province in the Federation of the West Indies , a federation of several of Britain's Caribbean colonies.

Bustamante, at the age of 78, became the country's first prime minister. In terms of foreign policy Jamaica became a member of the Non-Aligned Movement , seeking to retain strong ties with Britain and the United States whilst also developing links with Communist states such as Cuba.

The optimism of the first decade was accompanied by a growing sense of inequality among many Afro-Jamaicans, and a concern that the benefits of growth were not being shared by the urban poor, many of whom ended up living in crime-ridden shanty towns in Kingston.

Manley's government enacted various social reforms, such as a higher minimum wage , land reform, legislation for women's equality, greater housing construction and an increase in educational provision.

The largest and third-largest alumina producers, Alpart and Alcoa , closed; and there was a significant reduction in production by the second-largest producer, Alcan.

There was also a decline in tourism, which was important to the economy. Patterson — and Portia Simpson-Miller — During this period various economic reforms were introduced, such as deregulating the finance sector and floating the Jamaican dollar, as well as greater investment in infrastructure, whilst also retaining a strong social safety net.

Independence, however widely celebrated in Jamaica, has been questioned in the early 21st century. Jamaica is a parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy.

All the members of the Cabinet are appointed by the governor-general on the advice of the prime minister. The monarch and the governor-general serve largely ceremonial roles, apart from their reserve powers for use in certain constitutional crisis situations.

The position of the monarch has been a matter of continuing debate in Jamaica for many years; currently both major political parties are committed to transitioning to a Republic with a President.

Jamaica's current constitution was drafted in by a bipartisan joint committee of the Jamaican legislature. It came into force with the Jamaica Independence Act, of the United Kingdom parliament , which gave Jamaica independence.

Members of the House known as Members of Parliament or MPs are directly elected, and the member of the House of Representatives who, in the governor-general's best judgement, is best able to command the confidence of a majority of the members of that House, is appointed by the governor-general to be the prime minister.

Senators are nominated jointly by the prime minister and the parliamentary Leader of the Opposition and are then appointed by the governor-general.

The Judiciary of Jamaica operates on a common law system derived from English law and Commonwealth of Nations precedents. There are also several minor parties who have yet to gain a seat in parliament; the largest of these is the National Democratic Movement NDM.

Jamaica is divided into 14 parishes , which are grouped into three historic counties that have no administrative relevance.

In the context of local government the parishes are designated "Local Authorities". These local authorities are further styled as "Municipal Corporations", which are either city municipalities or town municipalities.

The local governments of the parishes of Kingston and St. Andrew Municipal Corporation. The newest city municipality created is the Municipality of Portmore in While it is geographically located within the parish of St.

Catherine, it is governed independently. Once chosen, officer candidates are sent to one of several British or Canadian basic officer courses depending on the arm of service.

As with the British model, NCOs are given several levels of professional training as they rise up the ranks. Additional military schools are available for speciality training in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom.

The Coast Guard is divided between seagoing crews and support crews who conduct maritime safety and maritime law enforcement as well as defence-related operations.

The role of the support battalion is to provide support to boost numbers in combat and issue competency training in order to allow for the readiness of the force.

In recent years the JDF has been called on to assist the nation's police, the Jamaica Constabulary Force JCF , in fighting drug smuggling and a rising crime rate which includes one of the highest murder rates in the world.

JDF units actively conduct armed patrols with the JCF in high-crime areas and known gang neighbourhoods. There has been vocal controversy as well as support of this JDF role.

This has not garnered support in either organisation nor among the majority of citizens. Jamaica is the third largest island in the Caribbean.

Kingston Harbour is the seventh-largest natural harbour in the world, [86] which contributed to the city being designated as the capital in Tourist attractions include Dunn's River Falls in St.

Ann, YS Falls in St. Elizabeth, the Blue Lagoon in Portland , believed to be the crater of an extinct volcano [ citation needed ] , and Port Royal , site of a major earthquake in that helped form the island's Palisadoes tombolo.

Among the variety of terrestrial, aquatic and marine ecosystems are dry and wet limestone forests, rainforest, riparian woodland, wetlands, caves, rivers, seagrass beds and coral reefs.

The authorities have recognised the tremendous significance and potential of the environment and have designated some of the more 'fertile' areas as 'protected'.

Among the island's protected areas are the Cockpit Country , Hellshire Hills , and Litchfield forest reserves. In , Jamaica's first marine park, covering nearly 15 square kilometres 5.

Portland Bight Protected Area was designated in The climate in Jamaica is tropical, with hot and humid weather, although higher inland regions are more temperate.

Jamaica lies in the hurricane belt of the Atlantic Ocean and because of this, the island sometimes suffers significant storm damage.

In the s decade , hurricanes Ivan , Dean , and Gustav also brought severe weather to the island. Jamaica's climate is tropical, supporting diverse ecosystems with a wealth of plants and animals.

Its plant life has changed considerably over the centuries; when the Spanish arrived in , except for small agricultural clearings, the country was deeply forested.

The European settlers cut down the great timber trees for building and ships' supplies, and cleared the plains, savannas, and mountain slopes for intense agricultural cultivation.

Today, however, Jamaica is now the home to about 3, species of native flowering plants of which over 1, are endemic and are species of orchid , thousands of species of non-flowering flora, and about 20 botanical gardens , some of which are several hundred years old.

Cactus and similar dry-area plants are found along the south and southwest coastal area. Parts of the west and southwest consist of large grasslands, with scattered stands of trees.

Jamaican's fauna, typical of the Caribbean , includes highly diversified wildlife with many endemic species. As with other oceanic islands, land mammals are mostly several species of bats of which at least three endemic species are found only in Cockpit Country , one of which is at-risk.

Other species of bat include the fig-eating and hairy-tailed bats. The only non-bat native mammal extant in Jamaica is the Jamaican hutia , locally known as the coney.

Jamaica is also home to about 50 species of reptiles, [98] the largest of which is the American crocodile ; however, it is only present within the Black River and a few other areas.

Lizards such as anoles , iguanas and snakes such as racers and the Jamaican boa the largest snake on the island , are common in areas such as the Cockpit Country.

None of Jamaica's eight species of native snakes is venomous. Jamaica is home to about species of birds of which 27 are endemic including the endangered black-Billed parrots and the Jamaican blackbird , both of which are only found in Cockpit Country.

It is also the indigenous home to four species of hummingbirds three of which are found nowhere else in the world : the black-billed streamertail , the Jamaican mango , the Vervain hummingbird , and red-billed streamertails.

The red-billed streamertail, known locally as the "doctor bird", is Jamaica's National Symbol. One species of freshwater turtle is native to Jamaica, the Jamaican slider.

It is found only on Jamaica and on a few islands in the Bahamas. In addition, many types of frogs are common on the island, especially treefrogs.

Beautiful and exotic birds, such as the can be found among a large number of others. Jamaican waters contain considerable resources of fresh-and saltwater fish.

Fish that occasionally enter freshwater and estuarine environments include snook , jewfish , mangrove snapper , and mullets.

Fish that spend the majority of their lives in Jamaica's fresh waters include many species of livebearers , killifish , freshwater gobies , the mountain mullet, and the American eel.

Tilapia have been introduced from Africa for aquaculture, and are very common. Also visible in the waters surrounding Jamaica are dolphins, parrotfish , and the endangered manatee.

Insects and other invertebrates are abundant, including the world's largest centipede, the Amazonian giant centipede.

Jamaica is the home to about species of butterflies and moths, including 35 indigenous species and 22 subspecies. It is also the native home to the Jamaican swallowtail , the western hemisphere's largest butterfly.

Coral reef ecosystems are important because they provide people with a source of livelihood, food, recreation, and medicinal compounds and protect the land on which they live.

However, the marine life in Jamaica is also being affected. There could be many factors that contribute to marine life not having the best health.

Jamaica's geological origin, topographical features and seasonal high rainfall make it susceptible to a range of natural hazards that can affect the coastal and oceanic environments.

These include storm surge, slope failures landslides , earthquakes, floods and hurricanes. The ocean connects all the countries all over the world, however, everyone and everything is affecting the flow and life in the ocean.

Jamaica is a very touristy place specifically because of their beaches. If their oceans are not functioning at their best then the well-being of Jamaica and the people who live there will start to deteriorate.

Pollution comes from run-off, sewage systems, and garbage. However, this typically all ends up in the ocean after there is rain or floods.

Everything that ends up in the water changes the quality and balance of the ocean. Poor coastal water quality has adversely affected fisheries, tourism and mariculture, as well as undermining biological sustainability of the living resources of ocean and coastal habitats.

Some of the imports that go into Jamaica include petroleum and petroleum products. Issues include accidents at sea; risk of spills through local and international transport of petroleum and petroleum products.

Oil and water do not mix. Unfortunately oil spills is not the only form of pollution that occurs in Jamaica. Solid waste disposal mechanisms in Jamaica are currently inadequate.

Solid waste is also harmful to wildlife, particularly birds, fish and turtles that feed at the surface of the water and mistake floating debris for food.

Pieces of plastic, metal, and glass can be mistaken for the food fish eat. There are policies that are being put into place to help preserve the ocean and the life below water.

The goal of integrated coastal zone management ICZM is to improve the quality of life of human communities who depend on coastal resources while maintaining the biological diversity and productivity of coastal ecosystems.

Over-building, driven by powerful market forces as well as poverty among some sectors of the population, and destructive exploitation contribute to the decline of ocean and coastal resources.

Some of these practices include: Develop sustainable fisheries practices, ensure sustainable mariculture techniques and practices, sustainable management of shipping, and promote sustainable tourism practices.

Tourist are not going to be used to living in a different style compared to their own country. Practices such as: provide sewage treatment facilities for all tourist areas, determine carrying capacity of the environment prior to planning tourism activities, provide alternative types of tourist activities can help to get desired results such as the development of alternative tourism which will reduce the current pressure on resources that support traditional tourism activities.

Instead of using tourist fees they would call them environmental fees. This study aims to inform the relevant stakeholders of the feasibility of implementing environmental fees as well as the likely impact of such revenue generating instruments on the current tourist visitation rates to the island.

The results show that tourists have a high consumer surplus associated with a vacation in Jamaica, and have a significantly lower willingness to pay for a tourism tax when compared to an environmental tax.

The findings of the study show that the "label" of the tax and as well as the respondent's awareness of the institutional mechanisms for environmental protection and tourism are important to their decision framework.

A tax high enough to fund for environmental management and protection but low enough to continue to bring tourist to Jamaica. Jamaica's diverse ethnic roots is reflected in the national motto 'Out of Many One People'.

Most of the population of 2,, July est. The Jamaican Maroons of Accompong and other settlements are the descendant of African slaves who fled the plantations for the interior where they set up their own autonomous communities.

Asians form the second-largest group and include Indo-Jamaicans and Chinese Jamaicans. The southwestern parish of Westmoreland is famous for its large population of Indo-Jamaicans.

There are about 20, Jamaicans who have Lebanese and Syrian ancestry. Eventually their descendants became very successful politicians and businessmen.

Today most of the town's descendants are of full or partial German descent. The first wave of English immigrants arrived to the island after conquering the Spanish, and they have historically being the dominant group.

The first Irish immigrants came to Jamaica in the s as war prisoners and later, indentured labour. Along with the English and the Irish , the Scots are another group that has made a significant impact on the island.

According to the Scotland Herald newspaper , Jamaica has more people using the Campbell surnames than the population of Scotland itself, and it also has the highest percentage of Scottish surnames outside of Scotland.

Later, they would be followed by ambitious businessmen who spent time between their great country estates in Scotland and the island.

As a result, many of the slave owning plantations on the island were owned by Scottish men, and thus a large number of mixed-race Jamaicans can claim Scottish ancestry.

High immigration from Scotland continued until well after independence. There is also a significant Portuguese Jamaican population that is predominantly of Sephardic Jewish heritage; they are primarily located in the Saint Elizabeth Parish in southwest Jamaica.

The first Jews arrived as explorers from Spain in the 15th century after being forced to convert to Christianity or face death. A small number of them became slave owners and even famous pirates.

During the Holocaust Jamaica became a refuge for Jews fleeing persecution in Europe. Jamaica is regarded as a bilingual country, with two major languages in use by the population.

However, the primary spoken language is an English-based creole called Jamaican Patois or Patwa. The two exist in a dialect continuum, with speakers using a different register of speech depending on context and whom they are speaking to.

In the case of the United States, about 20, Jamaicans per year are granted permanent residence.

It was estimated in that up to 2. Jamaicans in the United Kingdom number an estimated , making them by far the country's largest African-Caribbean group.

Large-scale migration from Jamaica to the UK occurred primarily in the s and s when the country was still under British rule. Jamaican communities exist in most large UK cities.

A notable though much smaller group of emigrants are Jamaicans in Ethiopia. These are mostly Rastafarians, in whose theological worldview Africa is the promised land, or 'Zion', or more specifically Ethiopia, due to reverence in which former Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie is held.

When Jamaica gained independence in , the murder rate was 3. Jamaica has had one of the highest murder rates in the world for many years, according to UN estimates.

However, there were 1, reported murders in and 1, in Many Jamaicans are hostile towards LGBT and intersex people, [] [] [] and mob attacks against gay people have been reported.

Christianity is the largest religion practised in Jamaica. The Rastafari movement has 29, adherents, according to the census, with 25, Rastafarian males and 3, Rastafarian females.

Various faiths and traditional religious practices derived from Africa are practised on the island, notably Kumina , Convince , Myal and Obeah.

There is also a small population of about Jews , who describe themselves as Liberal-Conservative. Originally built in , it is the official and only Jewish place of worship left on the island.

The once abundant Jewish population has voluntarily converted to Christianity over time. Other small groups include Muslims , who claim 5, adherents.

In the past, every plantation in each parish celebrated Hosay. Today it has been called an Indian carnival and is perhaps most well known in Clarendon where it is celebrated each August.

People of all religions attend the event, showing mutual respect. Though a small nation, Jamaican culture has a strong global presence. The musical genres reggae , ska , mento , rocksteady , dub , and, more recently, dancehall and ragga all originated in the island's vibrant, popular urban recording industry.

Some rappers, such as The Notorious B. Bob Marley is probably the best known Jamaican musician; with his band The Wailers he had a string of hits in s—70s, popularising reggae internationally and going on to sell millions of records.

The journalist and author H. The White Witch of Rosehall is one of his better-known novels. He was named Honorary President of the Jamaican Press Association; he worked throughout his professional career to promote the Jamaican sugar industry.

Roger Mais — , a journalist, poet, and playwright wrote many short stories, plays, and novels, including The Hills Were Joyful Together , Brother Man , and Black Lightning Jamaica has a history in the film industry dating from the early s.

A look at delinquent youth in Jamaica is presented in the s musical crime film The Harder They Come , starring Jimmy Cliff as a frustrated and psychopathic reggae musician who descends into a murderous crime spree.

Jamaica is also often used as a filming location, such as the James Bond film Dr. No , Cocktail starring Tom Cruise , and the Disney comedy Cool Runnings , which is loosely based on the true story of Jamaica's first bobsled team trying to make it in the Winter Olympics.

The island is famous for its Jamaican jerk spice , curries and rice and peas which is integral to Jamaican cuisine. From the Jamaica Information Service [].

Sport is an integral part of national life in Jamaica and the island's athletes tend to perform to a standard well above what might ordinarily be expected of such a small country.

Jamaica has produced some of the world's most famous cricketers, including George Headley , Courtney Walsh , and Michael Holding.

Sabina Park is the only Test venue in the island, but the Greenfield Stadium is also used for cricket. Since independence Jamaica has consistently produced world class athletes in track and field.

In Jamaica it is not uncommon for young athletes to attain press coverage and national fame long before they arrive on the international athletics stage.

Over the past six decades Jamaica has produced dozens of world class sprinters including Olympic and World Champion Usain Bolt , world record holder in the m for men at 9.

Jamaica has also produced several world class amateur and professional boxers including Trevor Berbick and Mike McCallum. Association football and horse-racing are other popular sports in Jamaica.

Horse racing was Jamaica's first sport. It was brought in the s by British immigrants to satisfy their longing for their favorite pastime back at home.

During slavery, the Afro-Jamaican slaves were considered the best horse jockeys. Today, horse racing provides jobs for about 20, people including horse breeders, groomers, and trainers.

Also, there are hundreds of Jamaicans who are employed in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom as exercise riders and groomers.

Race car driving is also a popular sport in Jamaica with several car racing tracks and racing associations across the country.

The Jamaica national bobsled team was once a serious contender in the Winter Olympics , beating many well-established teams.

Netball is also very popular on the island, with the Jamaica national netball team called The Sunshine Girls consistently ranking in the top five in the world.

Rugby league has been played in Jamaica since The emancipation of the slaves heralded the establishment of an education system for the masses.

Prior to emancipation there were few schools for educating locals and many sent their children off to England to access quality education.

Most of these schools were established by the churches. Education is free from the early childhood to secondary levels.

There are also opportunities for those who cannot afford further education in the vocational arena, through the Human Employment and Resource Training-National Training Agency HEART Trust-NTA programme, [] which is opened to all working age national population [] and through an extensive scholarship network for the various universities.

Jamaica is a mixed economy with both state enterprises and private sector businesses. Major sectors of the Jamaican economy include agriculture , mining , manufacturing , tourism , petroleum refining , financial and insurance services.

Half the Jamaican economy relies on services, with half of its income coming from services such as tourism.

An estimated 4. Supported by multilateral financial institutions, Jamaica has, since the early s, sought to implement structural reforms aimed at fostering private sector activity and increasing the role of market forces in resource allocation [] [] [] Since , the government has followed a programme of economic liberalisation and stabilisation by removing exchange controls, [] [] floating the exchange rate, [] [] cutting tariffs , [] stabilising the Jamaican dollar , reducing inflation [] and removing restrictions on foreign investment.

During this period, a large share of the economy was returned to private sector ownership through divestment and privatisation programmes.

Jamaica's economy grew strongly after the years of independence, [] but then stagnated in the s, due to the heavy falls in price of bauxite and fluctuations in the price of agriculture.

In and there was a decrease in GDP largely due to significant problems in the financial sector and, in , a severe island-wide drought the worst in 70 years and hurricane that drastically reduced agricultural production.

Recent economic performance shows the Jamaican economy is recovering. Agricultural production, an important engine of growth increased to 5.

January's bauxite production recorded a 7. The country also exports limestone , of which it holds large deposits.

The government is currently implementing plans to increase its extraction. A Canadian company, Carube Copper Corp, has found and confirmed, " Tourism, which is the largest foreign exchange earner, showed improvement as well.

In the total visitor arrivals was 2 million, an increase of , from the previous year. In , Jamaica recorded a Petrojam, Jamaica's national and only petroleum refinery, is co-owned by the Government of Venezuela.

Petrojam, ".. Jamaica's agricultural exports are sugar , bananas , cocoa , [] coconut , molasses [] oranges , limes , grapefruit , [] rum , yams , allspice of which it is the world's largest and "most exceptional quality" exporter , [] and Blue Mountain Coffee which is considered a world renowned gourmet brand.

Jamaica has a wide variety of industrial and commercial activities. The aviation industry is able to perform most routine aircraft maintenance, except for heavy structural repairs.

There is a considerable amount of technical support for transport and agricultural aviation. Jamaica has a considerable amount of industrial engineering , light manufacturing , including metal fabrication , metal roofing, and furniture manufacturing.

Food and beverage processing, glassware manufacturing, software and data processing , printing and publishing , insurance underwriting, music and recording, and advanced education activities can be found in the larger urban areas.

The Jamaican construction industry is entirely self-sufficient, with professional technical standards and guidance.

Since the first quarter of , the economy of Jamaica has undergone a period of staunch growth. With inflation for the calendar year down to 6.

All projections for show an even higher potential for economic growth with all estimates over 3. The global economic downturn had a significant impact on the Jamaican economy for the years to , resulting in negative economic growth.

The initiative would see holders of Government of Jamaica GOJ bonds returning the high interest earning instruments for bonds with lower yields and longer maturities.

The loan agreement is for a period of three years. In April , the Governments of Jamaica and China signed the preliminary agreements for the first phase of the Jamaican Logistics Hub JLH — the initiative that aims to position Kingston as the fourth node in the global logistics chain, joining Rotterdam, Dubai and Singapore, and serving the Americas.

Strict adherence to the IMF's refinancing programme and preparations for the JLH has favourably affected Jamaica's credit rating and outlook from the three biggest rating agencies.

In , both Moody's and Standard and Poor Credit ratings upgraded Jamaica's ratings to both "stable and positive" respectively. The transport infrastructure in Jamaica consists of roadways , railways and air transport , with roadways forming the backbone of the island's internal transport system.

Railways in Jamaica no longer enjoy the prominent position they once did, having been largely replaced by roadways as the primary means of transport.

There are three international airports in Jamaica with modern terminals , long runways , and the navigational equipment required to accommodate the large jet aircraft used in modern and air travel : Norman Manley International Airport in Kingston ; Ian Fleming International Airport in Boscobel , Saint Mary Parish ; and the island's largest and busiest airport, Sir Donald Sangster International Airport in the resort city of Montego Bay.

Manley and Sangster International airports are home to the country's national airline, Air Jamaica.

In addition there are local commuter airports at Tinson Pen Kingston , Port Antonio , and Negril , which cater to internal flights only.

Many other small, rural centres are served by private airstrips on sugar estates or bauxite mines. Owing to its location in the Caribbean Sea in the shipping lane to the Panama Canal and relative proximity to large markets in North America and emerging markets in Latin America, Jamaica receives much traffic of shipping containers.

The container terminal at the Port of Kingston has undergone large expansion in capacity in recent years to handle growth both already realised as well as that which is projected in coming years.

There are several other ports positioned around the island, including Port Esquivel in St. To aid the navigation of shipping, Jamaica operates nine lighthouses.

Jamaica depends on petroleum imports to satisfy its national energy needs. Jamaica's electrical power is produced by diesel bunker oil generators located in Old Harbour.

The newest operator, Digicel was granted a licence in to operate mobile services in the newly liberalised telecom market that had once been the sole domain of the incumbent FLOW then Cable and Wireless Jamaica monopoly.

A new entrant to the Jamaican communications market, Flow Jamaica , laid a new submarine cable connecting Jamaica to the United States.

This new cable increases the total number of submarine cables connecting Jamaica to the rest of the world to four. It is currently only available in the parishes of Kingston, Portmore and St.

FLOW has committed to expanding its Fibre offering to more areas in order to combat Digicel's entrance into the market. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Jamaica disambiguation. Island country in the Caribbean Sea. Main article: History of Jamaica. Main article: Pre-Columbian Jamaica.

Main article: Colony of Santiago. Main article: Colony of Jamaica. Main article: Independence of Jamaica. Main article: Politics of Jamaica.

Further information: Foreign relations of Jamaica and Republicanism in Jamaica. Main article: Parishes of Jamaica. Main article: Jamaica Defence Force.

Main articles: Geography of Jamaica and Geology of Jamaica. Further information: Demographics of Jamaica and Jamaican people.

Main articles: Jamaican Patois and Jamaican English. Main article: Jamaican diaspora. Main article: Crime in Jamaica.

See also: List of cities and towns in Jamaica. Largest cities or towns in Jamaica Demographic Statistics , pp. Main article: Religion in Jamaica. Main article: Culture of Jamaica.

Main article: Music of Jamaica. Main article: Jamaican literature. See also: List of Jamaican films. Main article: Jamaican cuisine.

Main article: Sport in Jamaica. Main article: Education in Jamaica. Main article: Economy of Jamaica.

Further information: Transport in Jamaica. Main article: Roads in Jamaica. Main article: Railways of Jamaica.

See also: Lighthouses in Jamaica. See also: Solar power in Jamaica. Main article: Telecommunications in Jamaica. Jamaica portal Caribbean portal.

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Archived from the original on 26 February Retrieved 28 December International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 12 March Central Intelligence Agency.

United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original PDF on 22 March Retrieved 10 December Retrieved 29 July Retrieved 9 November My island Jamaica.

Archived from the original on 18 August Retrieved 11 October Colin Larkin. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 July World Bank.

Archived from the original on 22 February Retrieved 21 February Jamaica Information Service Government of Jamaica. Archived from the original on 21 February Archived from the original on 16 October Retrieved 18 October Retrieved 30 June Colloquially Jamaicans refer to their home island as the "Rock"..

Archived from the original on 16 April American Journal of Human Biology. Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 15 February Archived from the original on 28 September Retrieved 26 June Archived from the original on 21 April Jamaica National Heritage Trust.

Archived from the original on 26 September Retrieved 30 September Archived from the original on 25 September Discover Jamaica.

Archived from the original on 5 August Retrieved 23 August The Sugar Barons. Archived from the original on 17 March Retrieved 3 March Archived from the original on 23 August Black, History of Jamaica London: Collins, , p.

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